Adler, 1927; Cantor, 1994; Emmons, 1989; Grant & Dweck, 1999 and Mischel, 1973

Proposed that person’s goals facilitate understanding and predicting the person’s behaviors. Accordingly, not only researchers of personality but also ordinary observers seek the goals underlying others’ behaviors and rely on goal-related assumptions to predict others’ future behaviors (e.g., Bassili, 1989; Read & Miller, 1993). The people expect others to pursue different goals in different situations, such as job interviews, fraternity parties, and first dates (Cantor, Mischel, & Schwartz, 1982). In this research we check the factors which effect goal actualization/ goal thwarting.

Hilton (1998)

Motivation is defined as the activation of internal desires, needs and concerns which energize behavior and send the organism in a particular direction aimed at satisfaction of the motivational issues that gave rise to the increased energy (Pittman, 1998). Similarly, according to Hilton (1998), social perception almost always involves an interaction between motivation and cognition. Further researchers like Fiske and Neuberg (1990) and Hilton and Darley (1991) also support the view that motivations shape cognitive processes and that one’s future goals are profiled by the met expectations.

Ingrasci 1981; Goff,Bellenger,Stojack 1994; Whittler 1996

Emphasizes his interested in personal selling and the importance of a salesperosn’s ability to adopt his or her behaviors based on perceptions of the consumer (e.g., Ingrasci 1981; Goff,Bellenger,Stojack 1994; Whittler 1996). The concept of adaptive selling (Weitz, Sujan,Sujan 1986) has replaced previously held approaches to personal selling that involved canned presentations and high pressure tactics. According to Goff,Bellenger and Stojack (1994), selling should be part of the marketing practice and it should share the same customer oriented philosophy and methodology.

Saxe and Weitz 1982
Emphasizes on selling effectiveness and customer-orientation scale (SOCO), having an idea that behavioral appropriateness on the part of the salesperson is a determinant of effectiveness. But, the scale was not intended to specify behaviors that are either sales or customer oriented, nor was it intended to address why certain behaviors would be viewed as such and under what conditions. The extant research typically focuses on only one half of the dyadic interaction – the salesperson (for an exception see Williams and Spiro 1985). The consumer and the motivations that she or he brings to the interaction are often ignored.

Cialdini (1984)

Focus on six basic principles of influence with specific types of behaviors used across a wide variety of influence attempts. Cialdini’s principles of authority, social validation, scarcity, liking, reciprocation, and consistency provide a framework for classifying salesperson behaviors. Cialdini (1999) argues that influence principles work for [salespeople] precisely because they work for consumers. He states, “it is normatively adaptive to follow the suggestions of an authority, friend or similar other, or to repay benefits in a reciprocal fashion or to seize rare opportunities or to be consistent with one’s attitudes, beliefs and actions.