Emotional creativity(2)

Positive and negative emotions

Many papers acknowledge that positive and negative affect are “ever present in the experience of emotions”( Diener, 1999,p.804; see also Berkowitz, 2000; Watson et al, 1999). We have content-analyzed 10 seminal studies in psychology on emotions and emotion words ( Frijda et al, 1989; Haylena et al, 1989; Morgan and Heise, 1988; Plutchik, 1980; Roseman et al, 1996; Russell, 1980; Shaver et al, 1987; Storm and Storm, 1987; Watson and Tellegen 1985; Watson et al , 1988). The research streams supporting the different emotion structures (positive/negative vs. specific emotions) seem opposing, but can in fact be seen as complementing. Shaver et al . (1987) and Storm and Storm (1987)and richens (1997) have suggested that emotions can be grouped into clusters, yielding a hierarchical structure.
Fig1Consumers Motivation_decrypted
Figure 1 : Hierarchy of negative emotions
Fig2Consumers Motivation_decrypted
Figure 2 : Hierarchy of positive emotions

Behavioral outcomes

According to Levine and Burgess (1997), negative emotions tend to signal a problem and may lead an individual to focus on specific aspects of the problematic situation. Also, as per Ellsworth and Smith (1988) and Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987) negative emotional arousal should motivate an individual to change his or her current situation. Similarly, according to Smith and Lazarus (1993, p. 234), a particular type of emotional response prepares and mobilizes a person to cope with the particular appraised harm or benefit in an adaptive manner, that is, to avoid, minimize or alleviate the appraised harm or to seek, maximize or maintain the appraised benefit. Further, Stein and Levine (1989), Roseman (1991) and Levine and Burgess (1995, 1996) support the view that emotions are associated with different problemsolving strategies. Thus, review of relevant literature prompts the authors to use rationale to link emotion and cognition and motivation to outcome behaviors and further to examine the positive emotions and negative emotions aroused during a sales-encounter experience.