Actually, a good deal of evidence suggests that emotional creativity is not only possible, but ubiquitous; hence, one of the above propositions must be incolTect. I will argue that it is the second, namely, that emotions are biologically primitive responses. Failure to recognize the creativity of emotional experience stems from deeply held cultural prejudices, dating back at least to the ancient Greeks, in which emotions have often been contrasted unfavorably with rationality, the presumed hallmark of humankind (Averill, 1984; p174). Evidence for emotional creativity stems from three main sources is:

1. Cultural variation in emotional syndromes: emotions differ greatly from one culture to another. Although such differences are widely recognized, that often missed as mere patina on more basic emotions, a cOlTosion of the pure emotional ore. Argument against such a position have been presented elsewhere and need not be presented here( averill, 1980, 1984).

2. Individual differences in emotional creativity: Not all people are equally creative in he emotional any more than in the intellectual domain. Hence, another way to demonstrate emotional creative. The interested reader is reflected elsewhere for details (Averill, 1999b).

3. The micro genesis of emotional episodes: An emotioan does not spring fully formed from the head of a person, like minerve from the head of eus, no matter oow creative a person might be. Emotional episodes develop overtime. BOlTowing a term from cognitive psychology, we may call this process microgenesis (Arieti, 1962; Hanlon, 1991).

Damasio (2000) and Le Doux (1998)

Predict that emotions are a basic part of our being human, and appear to be unrelated to culture. While the basic emotions comprising the affect program are fundamental to all human, believe that secondary emotions (emotions like embarrassment or guilt) are to some extent acquired, and triggered by things people have come to associate with that emotion through experience.

Richins, 1997

Predicts that in consumer psychology, consumer behavior, and even in the marketing literature there are numerous batteries of scales for ‘measuring’ feelings (sometimes labeled emotions). We initially considered simply using an established set of scales, but we were ‘concerned that when people talk about their feelings for things like adverts or brands they may not mean exactly that same thing that one might infer from a particular scale.