Salesperson behavior

The personal selling literature emphasizes the importance placed on a salesperson’s ability to adopt his or her behavior (Weitz, Sujan, Sujan 1986;Goff,Bellenger,Stojack 1994, Whittler 1996). The same literature streams also indicates that consumers at different phases of the decision making process are likely to view the role of the salesperson differently (Kernan and Reingen 1984). Thus, it follows that behaviors deemed appropriate in one situation may not be viewed as such in another. Based in part on theorizing by Cialdini (1984, 1999) and Caildini and trost (1998), the present research proposes that the influence strategies used by salespeople can be broadly classified as either relational-oriented behaviors or exchange oriented behaviors. Relational -oriented behaviors are those designed to help from relational ties based on liking, reciprocation, trust and expertise. Exchange oriented behaviors are those designed to reinforce decisions and initiate action based on social validation, scarcity and legitimate authority. (Lazarus 1991), predict that cognitive appraisal of the salesperson’s theories of emotions that are specifically related to the congruency appraisal and the consumer’s mind set.


Emotions affect or cause the negative thoughts. Lack of motivation prevents new’ learning. Emotions and learning occur in the brain. Learning means acquiring new knowledge and/or skills. Learning requires thinking. Our thoughts influence how we feel. How we feel influences how we think. These connections are bi-directional and complex. When we think about a happy incident, our mood improves and when we think about an angry incident, we are likely to feel angry. Because we cannot see emotions directly, we look to our behavior and to that of others to indicate how we feel. Emotions are a critical part of our learning (LeDoux 1993). The psychological states of the person also affect goal attainment or goal thwarting are based on Higgin’s (1987) self-discrepancy theory. Higgins and colleagues (Higgins, Shah, and Friedman 1997; Forster, Higgins, and Idson 1998) link these psychological states (avoid the negative/prevention focus, achieve the positive/promotion focus) with specific emotional states, or emotional orientations. . The research draws on Richins’ (1997) development of the Consumption Emotion Set, which contains individual emotions and specific clusters of emotions related to the consumption domain.

Wrosch, Scheier, Miller, Schulz, & Carver 2003

Predicts that during periods of goal engagement, individuals focus on what is important and ignore irrelevant stimuli. They put key procedures in place, attune their attention and perception to stimuli that trigger or cue behavior, and shield themselves from potential distractions. During periods of goal disengagement, by contrast, goals are deactivated. This does not imply a gradual decrease in goal engagement; on the contrary, goal disengagement is an active process whereby the processes typical of goal engagement are counteracted. It involves degrading the original goal and enhancing the value and attainability of alternative goals, defending self-esteem against experiences of failure and, more generally, seeking to ensure that disengagement from a particular goal does not undermine motivational resources in the long term (J. Heckhausen, 1999). Goal engagement and goal disengagement can be seen as two motivational modes: go and stop. The thesis proposed in this research is that a consumer’s motivation for entering a sales encounter has an impact on various aspects of the encounter.