THE GYPSY “TEST OF THE HANDKERCHIEF” IN OTHELLO(5)

When Desdemona applies the handkerchief/napkin to Othello’s forehead in an obvious gesture of love and solicitude, she cannot possibly imagine his relationship to it; she can neither suspect its first intended use (for her, and no one else) nor its cultural significance for him. On the contrary, her own ambivalent meanings are overwhelming her. On his forehead, the piece of cloth becomes a linteum and sudarium, symbolically representing the soothing of wounds on the scalp of Christ and, therefore, suggesting blood and death, sacrifice and martyrdom.

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THE GYPSY “TEST OF THE HANDKERCHIEF” IN OTHELLO(4)

OTHELLO(4)

As Desdemona holds the piece of cloth embroidered with the enigmatic symbol of the strawberries to Othello’s forehead in III.3, to soothe him from an ever increasing dread (though he pretends his torment is nothing more than a headache) he immediately tells her: “your napkin is too small.” Turning away from the thing with aversion, its secret cultural meaning and Iago’s relentless suggestions making him vulnerable to an epileptic seizure that Desdemona no doubt interprets as the “sacred disease,” he holds up his hand to stop her.

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THE GYPSY “TEST OF THE HANDKERCHIEF” IN OTHELLO(3)

Rymer himself could never have suspected the urgency of what he dismisses as a “trifle.” When he writes, as if offended or annoyed, “so much ado, so much stress, so much passion and repetition about a Handkerchief,” his invective may have been harsher if he truly understood the extent of the “passion,” so different for Desdemona and Othello, both divided by their respective culture and language. Only by revealing the symbolic importance of the handkerchief/napkin for Othello (and its relation to a complicated ethnicity that has been hidden by modern racial epithets such as “thick lips”) can the full extent of his supposed jealousy and murderous rage become understandable.

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THE GYPSY “TEST OF THE HANDKERCHIEF” IN OTHELLO(2)

It has been said that some groups of Gypsies are descendants of Jews. The Gitanos were believed to be descended from Andalusian Moors, or from a mixed race of Jews and Moors.

When the handkerchief/napkin first appears in Act III, scene 3 of Othello, dividing the tragedy in the middle, every major character has already developed a unique relationship to it as well as understood (if privately and, therefore, incompletely) the possible consequences of its cultural meanings. If the handkerchief/napkin remains one of the most fascinating objects in the history of dramatic literature, part of its “wonder” must come from its ability to so compulsively influence, binding everyone towards a tragic end.

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THE GYPSY “TEST OF THE HANDKERCHIEF” IN OTHELLO(1)

OTHELLO(1)

Since Thomas Rymer’s comments on the handkerchief in Othello, unable to recognize its meaning and therefore dismissing its “passion,” the piece of cloth has remained both a fascinating and incomprehensible object – its cultural meaning (perhaps known by Shakespeare’s Elizabethan audience) as neglected and mistaken as the true ethnic identity of Othello himself. Shakespeare, however, has given the audience/reader several indications of the meaning of the handkerchief, its description (i.e. Egyptian, embroidered with spotted strawberries) related both to Othello’s ethnicity and to a particular premarital ritual practiced by a people sometimes, if deceptively, called Moors; important remains Othello’s origins and his experience prior to arriving in Venice.

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ROLE OF ATG POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES(15)

ANTIBODIES(15)

Anti Thrombocyte globulins extracted from various precipitation reagents using SDS PAGE showed that the standards and markers at 52 KD are similar (Figure 1). The standards at 31 KD are similar. Extracts of poly ethylene glycol, Ammonium sulphate are similar between 52 KD and 98 KD. Molecular weight markers have got similarity with ATG standard (more…)

ROLE OF ATG POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES(14)

Regulatory T cells (Treg) play important roles in suppress immune responses and maintain tolerance. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) and horse ATG (hATG) are broadly used in the treatment of immune-mediated syndromes, other than their effects on Treg are indefinite. We show here that In vitro culture of standard human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through a low-dose rATG resulted in marked expansion of practical Treg by convert CD4+CD25- T cells to CD4+CD25+ T cells.

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