Modelling satisfaction with ATMs: METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION

Many methodological issues of importance to cross-cultural research have been cited in the past. For example, statistical analysis reveals significant differences in consumer behaviour between countries and cultures. Also, the research instruments can have either emic (cultural bound) or etic (cultural free) properties. Another issue relates to functional equivalence by which all variables under investigation must perform the same functions in the different nations being studied. The issue of conceptual equivalence is an important one to take into consideration since many concepts are inappropriate for use on a cross-national basis. Only those concepts that are relevant to a given culture should be used in that culture. Conceptual equivalence problems may arise if cross- cultural research includes concepts that apply to some countries but may apply in different ways (or not at all) to others.

Equivalent cross-cultural instruments are very difficult to develop. Instrument equivalence involves two issues: measurement equivalence and vocabulary equivalence. In this research study, the translation into Hungarian was equivalent to the original language in which the instrument was developed. Cross-national research also requires samples that are as closely comparable as possible. This study has adopted uniform procedures in order to minimise variance due to the data collection procedures carried out in Hungary. The approach to measurement of the operational variables in this model is explained below.